Enkhbayar Gonchigdorj1, Dorjsuren Ishdorj2, 1Professor School of Engineering and Technology, Mongolian University of Life Sciences, 2Lecturer School of Engineering and Technology, Mongolian University of Life Sciences
This research focused on some tribological analysis of various types of engine oil, determination of depreciation products (metal elements) in used engine oil, measurement and analysis of diesel engine smoke opacity, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from gasoline engines.Mongolias extreme climate and too cold conditions, cold days of a long time (almost 5 months) and the fact that most car owners do not have a warm garage are the main reasons for engine wear.The research conducted a comprehensive study on various aspects of engine oil analysis in Mongolias extreme climate and cold conditions. The study investigated 30 types of gasoline and diesel engine oils available in the market and classified them into two groups based on their benefits and advantages. Warning and limit values of metallic elements (Fe, Cr, Cu, Sn, Al) were determined in oil samples taken periodically from diesel and gasoline engines of "Land Cruiser 200" cars used in our country. A nomogram was created to determine the possibility of the engine stock, which is used in the conditions of Mongolia, by a smoke opacity of CI engine and a content of metallic elements of SI engine which in used oils, such as carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC). In order to ensure that passenger cars imported from abroad are free of damage during their service life and fully utilize the engine stock , the period for engine oil changing, diagnosis and technical service has been determined based on research.
Engine oil, metal element, smoke opacity, pollutants, engine stock.
Chan Lee1, Seung Wook Kim2 and Hyun Taek Byun3, 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hwaseong, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea, 2PIDOTEC, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 3Kyungwon-Tech, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea
The present paper deals with the optimization study of an axial flow fan, which optimizes 3D fan rotor blade geometry by the application of optimization algorithm to the design variables of spanwise camber, stagger angles and chord lengths for improving fan performance and maximizing fan efficiency. Through the design optimization process of fan rotor blade, optimal fan rotor is obtained and then coupled with outlet guide vane. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is conducted to verify the performance and efficiency of the present optimal fan design. The design values of performance and efficiency of the present optimal fan agree well with the CFD results and the present optimal fan design gives the efficiency improvement of 6.7% compared to the initial design.
Axial flow fan, Efficiency, Camber angle, Optimization, Performance, Stagger Angle.
Prabath Jayathissa, Avanthi Rupasinghe, Roshan Hewapathirane, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common among children, and bacterial resistance to commonly used antibiotics is a growing concern. In this study, we aimed to identify the bacterial profile and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of UTI among children in Sri Lanka. A total of 214 urine samples were collected from children aged 1 month to 12 years with symptoms of UTI. The samples were processed for bacterial isolation, identification, and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Escherichia coli was the most common organism isolated (70.6%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.6%), Proteus mirabilis (7.9%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.6%). The highest resistance rates were observed against ampicillin (87.9%), followed by cotrimoxazole (71.8%) and cefotaxime (40.2%). Nitrofurantoin showed the highest susceptibility (91.6%) followed by amikacin (84.6%). Our findings suggest that E. coli is the predominant organism causing UTI among children in Sri Lanka, and there is a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance among the isolates. Nitrofurantoin and amikacin could be potential choices for empirical therapy in this setting. Continuous monitoring of antibiotic resistance patterns is necessary to guide empirical treatment and control the spread of resistant organisms.
Urinary Track Infection, antibiotic susceptibility, antibiotic resistance.
Adeoye B. A1, Olukotun G. B1, Makanjuola D2, Labbo Z1, Obadare I4, Ahmadu J. H1, Egbulefu C1, Fadesire A6, Mbochi C3, Shanu M3, and Nyam P5, 1National Biotechnology Development Agency, Musa Yaradua Express Way, Lugbe, FCT, Abuja, Nigeria, 2Department of Environment Science, College of Environment Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic Nigeria, 3Nutrition and Dietetics dept., School of health, Makarfi, Kaduna State, Nigeria, 4Minisrty of Agriculture, Divisional Veterinary Clinic, Keffi, Nasarawa State Nigeria, 5Department of Social Sciences, SIIHST Markarfi Campus Kaduna State University, 6Department of Nutrition and Dietetics , SIIHST Markarfi Campus Kaduna State University.
Though antimicrobial agents have been used for the effective control of infectious agents, there is a growing concern about the emergence and re-emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria pathogens against commonly prescribed antibiotics. Plant parts and extracts have been used in crude forms for the local control of several ailments including those of animals. One, to isolate and identify multi-drug bacteria pathogens from some small-scale farms in Kwali, FCT, Abuja and their drug resistance status. Secondly was to screen and evaluate the antimicrobial effects of common phytochemicals from some local plants, viz; guava (Psidium guajava) and others against the previously isolated MDR bacteria (Salmonella spp and others. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the plants were used for susceptibility test, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentrations using in vitro agar disc diffusion protocol based on the CLSI methods. The results showed significant Inhibitory zones range of 23-32mm. This is in agreement with several researches previously done using plant extracts. It can be concluded that the plant extracts have some antimicrobial activities comparable to the currently prescribed modern drugs. It is hereby recommended that further research (The third phase) carry out studies on the clinical efficacy trial, safety and more.
Antimicrobial, Extracts, Pathogens, Susceptibility, Resistance and Assay.
Shuaibu Abubakar, College of food and Pharmacy, Zhejiang Ocean University , China
Omics techniques have revolutionized the field of biomedical research, enabling comprehensive and high-throughput analysis of various biological components, such as genomics, ranscriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics. These powerful methodologies have greatly contributed to our understanding of biological systems and their role in health and disease. This review article explores the applications of omics techniques in diverse areas of research, including disease diagnostics, biomarker discovery, drug development, and personalized medicine. It also highlights the challenges and future prospects of omics technologies, emphasizing their potential impact on advancing healthcare and precision medicine.
omics techniques, genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics.
Shuaibu abubakar, Gao Yunpei, College of food and Pharmacy, Zhejiang Ocean University , China
Precision fermentation, a novel technology that combines synthetic biology, data analytics, and fermentation processes, is poised to revolutionize the food industry. This article provides an overview of precision fermentation, highlighting its potential benefits and applications. Furthermore, we present empirical data on the impact of precision fermentation on various aspects of the food industry, including product development, sustainability, and nutrition. We also discuss potential challenges and future directions for this transformative technology.
precision fermentation, synthetic biology and genetic engineering, food ingredient, derived protein, recombinant protein.
Albert T Modi, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, 3209
Seed quality can be explained using a range of indices that are acceptable within the standards set by the International Seed Testing Association. There is a need to improve existing models to explain the well-known variations in seed quality within and between crop species. The objective of this study was to determine the consistency of using grain water occurrence to explain seed quality in terms of viability and vigour in maize (Zea mays L.). Four sites were used over two seasons to grow three cultivars in order to monitor changes in water content, water activity, dry mass and total starch observed in different cob sections (tip, medium and bottom) at 30, 60 and 90 days after pollination. Seed quality was determined based on the germination and vigour of physiologically mature kernels. It is concluded that grains that seed quality is linked to the water activity and position on the cob.
cob position, maize, seed quality, vigour index, water activity.
Yosra Annabi, free researcher
This article mathematically models the migration of radio-active molecules injected into the human body during a medical examination of the Positron emission tomography type. It is a medical examination used (requested) for the detection of cancer in a human body. The article begins with a description of the migration processes of a particle. Then the modeling equations are introduced.
EDP, nuclear imaging, TPE, convection, diffusion, dispersion, cancer, wave equation, diffusion convection equation.
Alya Harichane, Nadhir Toubal Seghir, Paweł Niewiadomski , Łukasz Sadowski , Johann Plank , Institute of Science, Tipaza University Center, Tipaza 42000, Algeria, Department of Materials Engineering and Construction Processes, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wroclaw, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland, Technische Universität München, Chair for Construction Chemistry, 85747 Garching, Lichtenbergstraße 4, Germany
The incorporation of polycarboxylate ether superplasticizer (PCE) and silica fume (SF) in high-performance concretes (HPC) leads to the achievement of remarkable rheological and mechanical improvements. In the fresh state, PCEs are adsorbed on cement particles and dispersants, in turn promoting the workability of the concrete. Silica fume enables a very well compacted concrete to be obtained, which is characterized by high mechanical parameters in its hardened state. Some PCEs are incompatible with silica fume, which can result in the loss of slump and in poor rheological behavior. The main objective of the research is the study of the influence of three types of PCEs, which all have a different molecular architecture, on the rheological and mechanical behavior of high-performance concretes containing 10% of SF as a partial replacement of cement. The results show that the carboxylic density of PCE has an influence on its compatibility with SF.
Polycarboxylate-ether superplasticizer, Rheology, Compressive strength, High performance concrete, Silica fume.
Rachida Ghinous, Mounia Malki, El Hachmi Essadiqi, Mustapha Faqir, Université Internationale de Rabat, AERO School, LERMA LAB, Rocade Rabat-Sale, 11100 Sala el Jadida, Morocco.
Extensive research activities have been directed at finding an alternative for rare-earth based magnets, due to their high cost and unequal availability across the globe. Manganese-based permanent magnets have been identified as a promising candidate as it incurs low cost and possess high-performance magnetic properties. MnAl alloys are characterized by a ferromagnetic phase that possesses high magnetic saturation (Ms) of 144 erg/(G·g), and a predicted energy product (𝐵𝐻)𝑚𝑎𝑥of 12.64 MGOe. Several experimental analyses have been conducted to understand and model the ferromagnetic 𝜏-phase in MnAl. The challenge with the MnAl magnet is its decomposition to 𝛽 & 𝛾2 phases. This comprehensive work reviews the most promising studies aiming to stabilize the ferromagnetic phase of the MnAl. The studies also focused on the phase transformation, and the microstructure evolution. Processes such as mechanical alloying with 2% carbon doping and melt spinning using a roller with a speed of 5 m/s have been proven to attribute favorably the stabilization of the magnet in question. The two processes resulted in a 99% and a 100% pure 𝜏-phase respectively.
MnAl alloys, manufacturing process, permanent magnets, magnetic properties, phase transformation, microstructure evolution.
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